There are number of that are available used for clinical research as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive types. Many of these biomarkers have been vigorously tested to assess their clinical utility across different patients with atherosclerotic CVD. The desirable characteristics of any includes measurement should be easy, preferably at point-of-care over a short period of time with adequate precision and accuracy. These biomarkers can reflect pathophysiologic process of , and also may be able to give information about prognosis and assist guide clinical decision making without duplicating any information that is already available clinically.
evaluating prognostic outcomes should report discrimination, calibration and reclassification in patients by evaluating statistical models with and without the biomarker in order to demonstrate their added value over traditional and other commonly used biomarkers. are at the forefront of being evaluated for added utility and they too need rigorous assessments to evaluate their relations with the CVD and for their added advantage over traditional risk factors. Utilizing as surrogate end points for predictive and prognostic values in clinical trials will likely dictate our future of CVD treatment, and will also open up avenues to evaluate biomarkers as possible targets for drug delivery and development.